The Surprising Benefits of Bacopa Monnieri as a Nootropic Ingredient

What is Bacopa Monnieri?

Bacopa Monnieri, also known as water hyssop, is a herbaceous plant commonly found in wetlands and muddy shores in parts of India, Australia, Europe, and North America. It has been used in traditional medicine for centuries as a brain tonic, adaptogen, and memory enhancer.

In recent years, Bacopa Monnieri has gained attention as a natural nootropic supplement with potential benefits for cognitive enhancement, memory, and mental performance. Nootropics are substances that can enhance cognitive function, such as memory, focus, and learning ability.



Traditional Uses of Bacopa Monnieri Ayurvedic Medicine

Ayurvedic medicine, a traditional system of medicine originating in India, has long recognized Bacopa Monnieri as a potent herb for brain health, Known as "Brahmi". The plant has been used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, stress, epilepsy, and cognitive decline.

Ayurvedic practitioners believed that Bacopa Monnieri could boost brain function by nourishing and rejuvenating the nervous system, improving blood flow to the brain, and reducing inflammation.


Nootropic Benefits

The nootropics benefits of Bacopa Monnieri have been the subject of numerous scientific studies.


Cognitive Performance And Anxiolytic Effects

  • Research has found that taking Bacopa monnieri can help improve cognitive performance and reduce stress.
  • In a study of 17 people, taking a single dose of 320-640mg of Bacopa resulted in significant improvements in cognitive performance, mood, and decreased cortisol response from stress[1].
  • Another study of 30 people over 12 weeks showed that Bacopa did not significantly change cognitive testing scores, but did show a trend for decreased anxiety[2].
  • Bacopa has also been found to have anxiolytic effects in people with cognitive decline and has been shown to effectively reduce general anxiety symptoms when combined with Gotu kola in double-blind, randomized clinical trials[3,4].


Improved Memory

Research has shown that Bacopa Monnieri can improve memory.

  • For older adults, a study of 81 people over 55 years old found that taking Bacopa for 12 weeks significantly improved memory acquisition and retention[5].
  • Another meta-analysis of 6 studies found that Bacopa improved memory-free recall but did not improve other aspects of cognition[6].

Improved Attention

  • In a meta-analysis of 9 studies with 437 subjects, Bacopa was found to improve the speed of attention and cognition, as well as decrease reaction time[7].
  • In another study of 54 adults, taking a 300mg standardized extract of Bacopa enhanced memory and increased the ability to ignore irrelevant information[8].

Mechanism of action


Bacopa monnieri has various pharmacological effects, such as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, bronchodilator, cardiotonic, and peptic ulcer protection properties.

Cognitive enhancing properties

  • Its cognitive-enhancing properties are particularly noteworthy, thanks to a group of saponins called bacosides, which enhance learning ability, memory, and cognitive performance[9].
  • Bacopa achieves these effects through several mechanisms, including modulation of acetylcholine release(a chemical messenger), muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding, and choline acetylase activity( an enzyme)[10].


Neuroprotective effects


  • Bacopa can protect the brain from damage and help prevent age-related cognitive decline.
  • It does this by inhibiting the release of certain substances TNF alpha and IL-6(substances) from activated N9 microglial cells that cause inflammation in the brain[9].
  • It also has several other mechanisms of action, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibition(enzyme), beta-amyloid reduction(protein), choline acetyltransferase activation, increased cerebral blood flow, and monoamine potentiation.
  • Bacopa modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis output, protects the hippocampus, and has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated microglial cell cultures. In this way, it helps protect memory[11].

Antioxidant Effects

  • Bacopa contains antioxidants that can help protect the body from damage caused by free radicals.
  • It can also increase the levels of an important antioxidant molecule called glutathione.


Effects On Mood And Decision Making

  • Bacopa increases the adaptation responses to stressors, normalizes monoamine levels and corticosterone in experimental models of stress, and supports GABA production, thereby improving rapid response decision-making[12].
  • It also has sedative actions that can lend an overall calming effect by reducing neuron excitability through GABA production.


Dosage and Safety

Bacopa Monnieri is safe when taken in recommended doses

The herb can be taken in three ways[13]:

  • 5 to 10 grams of the herb per day, divided into 2 or 3 doses
  • 10 to 20 milliliters of a tincture per day, divided into 2 or 3 doses
  • 300 to 450 milligrams of an extract per day, usually standardized to contain 24% to 55% bacosides

Children between the ages of 6 and 12 can take 225 milligrams of the extract per day for up to 6 months. The recommended dosage for Bacopa Monnieri supplements varies depending on the product but typically ranges from 300-600mg per day.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided on the product label and to consult with a healthcare professional before taking any new supplements.


Potential Side Effects

Bacopa monnieri is a natural medicine that is generally safe for use. It offers many benefits and is unlikely to cause problems if taken correctly.

  • Some people may experience digestive issues such as increased bowel movements, nausea, or stomach cramps. This could be due to Bacopa increasing the chemical acetylcholine in the body or irritating the digestive tract[14].
  • A study found that Bacopa may lower fertility in animals but does not affect sex drive; it decreases the number, movement, and health of sperm after prolonged use.
  • It may also interact with certain medications, including amitriptyline, a medication used for pain relief.

How to Take Bacopa Monnieri

  • The time of day you take Bacopa Monnieri as a nootropic supplement doesn't matter - the benefits are the same whether you take it in the morning or at night.
  • To get the most out of your supplements, take them with a meal that includes healthy fats so that your body can absorb the Bacopa Monnieri better.
  • Bacopa Monnieri has a cumulative effect, so it may take several weeks of consistent use to notice its cognitive-enhancing benefits.
  • Bacopa Monnieri can be stacked with other nootropic supplements, such as Ginkgo Biloba, for increased memory and focus. But before stacking Bacopa Monnieri with other supplements or medications, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider.


Personal Experiences

Many people have reported positive experiences with Bacopa Monnieri as a nootropic supplement. Some users have reported improved memory, focus, and mental clarity, as well as reduced anxiety and stress. For example, a user said,

“I have been taking for over two years a health supplement with Bacopa extract as its main ingredient. I've noticed a considerable improvement in my short-term memory and ability to focus. It's a lot easier to remember names and facts, and I don't lose my train of thought in conversation anymore”.

Another user said “No side effects. Feel great no tension sleeping very well. This is a lifesaver and much more effective and safer than prescriptions cheaper too. Helps balance dopamine levels and memory”.

Comparisons with Other Nootropics


Mechanism of action

  • Bacopa increases the production of certain neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and serotonin, which play a role in learning, memory, and mood regulation.
  • Piracetam works by modulating the activity of neurotransmitter receptors, while Alpha GPC increases the levels of choline in the brain, which is a precursor to acetylcholine.


Effects On Memory

  • Bacopa has been shown to improve both short-term and long-term memory, as well as working memory.
  • Piracetam has been reported to improve memory consolidation and recall, while Alpha GPC has been shown to enhance memory formation and retrieval.


Side effects

  • Bacopa is generally considered safe but may cause some side effects such as digestive issues, dry mouth, and fatigue.
  • Piracetam has been reported to cause headaches and insomnia in some individuals, while Alpha GPC may cause mild side effects such as nausea and headaches.


Dosage and administration

 Bacopa is typically taken in doses of 300-600 mg per day, while Piracetam is usually taken in doses of 1200-4800 mg per day, and Alpha GPC is taken in doses of 300-1200 mg per day.


Legal status

Bacopa is a natural herb that is legal in most countries. Piracetam is a synthetic nootropic that is legal in some countries but not in others. Alpha GPC is a naturally occurring compound that is legal in most countries.

Potential Applications

In addition to its effects on cognitive function, Bacopa monnieri has also been studied for its potential applications in other areas. Some of these include:


Bacopa has been studied as a potential treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with some studies suggesting that it may help to improve symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity[15].



Bacopa has been shown to have antiepileptic effects in animal studies and may be a potential treatment for epilepsy in humans.


Some studies suggest that Bacopa may have anti-cancer properties, although more research is needed to confirm this[16].

Respiratory disorders

Bacopa has been used traditionally to treat respiratory disorders such as asthma and bronchitis, and some studies suggest that it may have bronchodilatory effects.


Future Research

While there is already a significant body of research supporting the cognitive-enhancing benefits of Bacopa Monnieri, there is still much to be learned about this plant and its potential uses. Future research may explore the effects of Bacopa Monnieri on other aspects of health and wellness, as well as potential long-term effects and optimal dosages.



Overall, Bacopa Monnieri is a promising nootropic supplement with a range of cognitive-enhancing benefits, as well as potential applications in other areas of health and wellness.

 While it is generally considered safe, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking Bacopa Monnieri, especially if you have any medical conditions or are taking any medications. With proper use and supervision, Bacopa Monnieri may be a valuable tool for improving cognitive function and overall well-being.


  1. Benson S, Downey LA, Stough C, Wetherell M, Zangara A, Scholey A. An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood. Phytother Res. 2014 Apr;28(4):551-9.
  2. Sathyanarayanan V, Thomas T, Einöther SJ, Dobriyal R, Joshi MK, Krishnamachari S. Brahmi for the better? New findings challenging cognition and anti-anxiety effects of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera) in healthy adults. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 May;227(2):299-306.
  3. Gupta GL, Sharma L. Bacopa monnieri abrogates alcohol abstinence-induced anxiety-like behavior by regulating biochemical and Gabra1, Gabra4, Gabra5 gene expression of GABAA receptor signaling pathway in rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Mar;111:1417-1428.
  4. Stough C, Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA, Hutchison CW, Rodgers T, Nathan PJ. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Aug;156(4):481-4.
  5. Morgan A, Stevens J. Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9. [PubMed]
  6. Pase MP, Kean J, Sarris J, Neale C, Scholey AB, Stough C. The cognitive-enhancing effects of Bacopa monnieri: a systematic review of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Jul;18(7):647-52.
  7. Kongkeaw C, Dilokthornsakul P, Thanarangsarit P, Limpeanchob N, Norman Scholfield C. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151(1):528-35.
  8. Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul;14(6):707-13.
  9. Singh HK, Dhawan BN. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi) extracts on avoidance responses in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 1982 Mar;5(2):205-14.
  10. Kishore K, Singh M. Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Jul;43(7):640-5.
  11. Nemetchek MD, Stierle AA, Stierle DB, Lurie DI. The Ayurvedic plant Bacopa monnieri inhibits inflammatory pathways in the brain. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Feb 02;197:92-100.
  12. Mathew J, Gangadharan G, Kuruvilla KP, Paulose CS. Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the hippocampus of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri. Neurochem Res. 2011 Jan;36(1):7-16
  13. Dave UP, Dingankar SR, Saxena VS, Joseph JA, Bethapudi B, Agarwal A, Kudiganti V. An open-label study to elucidate the effects of standardized Bacopa monnieri extract in the management of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Adv Mind Body Med. 2014 Spring;28(2):10-5.
  14. Singh A, Singh SK. Evaluation of the antifertility potential of Brahmi in male mice. Contraception. 2009 Jan;79(1):71-9
  15. Furman L. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? J Child Neurol. 2005 Dec;20(12):994-1002. doi 10.1177/08830738050200121301. PMID: 16417850.
  16. Smith E, Palethorpe HM, Tomita Y, Pei JV, Townsend AR, Price TJ, Young JP, Yool AJ, Hardingham JE. The Purified Extract from the Medicinal Plant Bacopa monnieri, Bacopaside II, Inhibits the Growth of Colon Cancer Cells In Vitro by Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis. Cells. 2018 Jul 21;7(7):81. doi 10.3390/cells7070081. PMID: 30037060; PMCID: PMC6070819.

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